[Usability & glossary] [Glossary]


Acquisition Capability Framework, in the form of a functional competence set provides the basis for selection to IPTs as well as determining the development needs of individuals and teams in the new IPT  environment. Note that capability is not used in this sense in this document.

(process) Capability (in the context of capability maturity) The ability of a (system life cycle) process to achieve a required  goal. Note that this differs from military or operational capability (see below).

(process) Category A set of processes addressing the same general area of activity.

NOTE 1 - The process categories for software process modelling address five general areas of activity: customer-supplier, engineering, support, management, and organization.

Central Customer The customer prior to the point when equipment becomes available to the user and for upgrades to in- service  equipment that reflect a change to the user’s requirement.

Collective Performance The ability of units or  formations to function as cohesive entities and to operate their equipment to the limit of its capability.

Context of use The users, tasks, equipment (hardware,  software and materials), and the physical and social environments in which a system is used.

Customer The body to which the IPT is answerable for meeting agreed cost and performance targets within agreed and approved resources. In the early project phases the customer is the Central Customer, in the in- service phases it is the Second Customer.

Enabling system A system that complements the product system q.v. during its life cycle stages, but does not contribute directly to  its functionality

Enterprise A business unit, company, corporation or  other organisation with a set of goals and objectives to offer products and/or  services.. This is usually the collection of organisations involved in a system project.

Ergonomics The study of human capabilities and limitations, human interaction with technologies and environments, and the  application of this knowledge to products, processes and environments.

NOTE 2 - The new word "Ergonomics" was originally created from a combination of the Greek words "ergos" and "nomos" to mean literally "laws of work".

Formative evaluation Evaluation designed and used to improve the object of evaluation, especially when it is still being developed.

Human/user-centred Approaches which have as their  primary intention or focus the consideration of the interests or needs of the individuals and/or groups which will work with or use the output from a system.

HF data Information about users and other stakeholders  that is generated and maintained by the Human Sciences. This includes, for example, anthopometric data, health and safety data, psychometric measurements, ergonomics standards, and expert knowledge in all human sciences (i.e.  psychology, sociology, medicine, human computer interaction, behavioural  science, anthropology, management science, education, personnel and staffing  management, and codifications of this information and knowledge (e.g.  international standards, legislative requirements, existing patents, good practice, style guides and project standards).

Human-system issue An issue (for example, a need, want,  constraint, limit, concern, factor or consideration) relating to the people  (users and other stakeholders) and their involvement in or interaction with a system at any time in the life cycle of that system.

Indicator An indirect measure that gives supporting information about input, output or performance (e. g. staff skill levels).  Indicators provide warning of potentialproblems or risks.

Lifecycle The stages and activities spanning the life of  the system from the definition of its requirements to the termination of its use covering its conception, development, operation, maintenance support and  disposal.

Military capability The general capability of forces, measured by the extent to which they meet specified standards of Manning,  Equipment Availability, Collective Performance (CP) and Sustainability.

Operational Capability An operational outcome or effect  that users of equipment need to achieve.

Operability The military application of Quality In Use i.e. the ability of specified users under specified contexts of use to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, productivity, safety and satisfaction with  the product system under consideration.

Operational effectiveness The final defence output: the  probability of achieving a Military Task in a defined operational context.

Organisational This document uses the term ‘organisational requirements’ to refer to the needs of the client organisation.  In this document ‘organisational’ should be taken to refer to the client, not  the developer organisation. To avoid confusion the term ‘enterprise’ q.v. is used when referring to the organisation(s) which are developing a system for use by the client organisation. Apart from in this clause the term ‘organisation’ is used to refer to any other organisation, including the client organisation.

Practice A technical or management activity that contributes to the creation of the output (work products) of a process or  enhances the capability of a process.

Process A set of interrelated activities, which transform inputs into outputs.

NOTE 3 - In this model nearly the equivalent of a Capability Maturity Model key process area (KPA).

Process assessment A disciplined evaluation of an  enterprise’s software processes against a model.

Process category A set of processes addressing the same  general area of activity.

Process improvement Action taken to change an enterprise’s processes so that they meet the enterprise’s business needs and  achieve its business goals more effectively.

Product system A type of system q.v. In ISO nnnn the term "product system" is used to indicate the system of interest, i.e. the system that is under development or in operation. Any product system will have a number of enabling systems q.v. which are developed in concert with the product  system.

Prototype Refers to any artefact created for the purpose  of demonstration to users in order to elicit or test user feedback. This  includes inter alia demonstrators, mock-ups, paper prototypes, simulations, role-plays, dummy systems or documents, scenarios etc.

Project stakeholder A type of Stakeholder q.v. This term  is used in ISO nnnn to refer to the members of an organisation who have a stake  in a project. This includes, for example, the project manager, task leaders, technical staff, administrative staff, quality assurance.

Project An undertaking with pre-specified objectives, magnitude and duration. (ISO 2382-20) NOTE The term 'project' is not intended to  be exclusive to the development of a product system. Projects include long-term  activities related to a product system, such as training, maintenance and support.

Quality in use The capability of a product system to enable specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness,  productivity, safety and satisfaction in specified contexts of use.

NOTE 4 - The user is not just the operator of the system.

Stakeholder All persons or organisations affected by the  system. This includes the user, the customer, the employer, developers,  regulatory bodies, maintenance staff, support desk, etc.

NOTE 5 - The "employer" includes people suppliers, manpower  planners, training authority

Second Customer The customer responsible for in- service aspects of the programme, normally part of the organisation of an appropriate front- line Commander in Chief, who will make a Customer Supplier Agreement for the in- service phase specifying the outputs required.

Stakeholder Those who have an interest in the system. Includes operational stakeholders (users) and systems development and support  stakeholders.

Summative evaluation Evaluation designed to present  conclusions about the merit or worth of the object of evaluation and recommendations about whether it should be retained, altered or eliminated.

System A discrete, distinguishable entity with a physical existence and a defined purpose completely composed of integrated and  interacting components, each of which does not individually comply with the  overall purpose.

NOTE 6 - In this document the term system is used to describe a  product q.v., implemented in any combination of physical equipment, computer software, documentation, human tasks and organisational or management procedures.

NOTE 7 - The term ‘system’ is used in this document to mean  large and small systems and also equipment and other products. A system can  range from an entire outsourced information provision service, to a worksystem,  to a consumer item such as a lawnmower.

Systems Engineering The set of activities which control the overall design, implementation and integration of a complete set of interacting components or systems in order to meet the needs of all users and  other stakeholders.

System Requirements Document (SRD) A complete set of individual systems requirements supported by a general description. Can be either a document or a database.

Target A quantified objective for a given performance  measure to be attained at a specified future date, and against which performance  will be compared. Targets set for the DPA by its Owner are called Key Targets.  IPT Targets can be steady state targets or, as part of the breakthrough process,  hard or stretch objectives

Target Audience Description A specification of the  characteristics of the intended users of the product system, including physical and cognitive aspects and their training and background. It states the likely  characteristics needed to fulfil key job requirements, including: rank and  branch, knowledge and skills, personal attributes, training and career objectives.

Task An activity required to achieve an intended outcome of a worksystem. The word task in this document is not used in the sense of a military tasking.

Through Life Management Plan (TLMP) The TLMP brings  together three key themes of SPI: IPTs, Systems Engineering and improved commercial practices. An outline TLMP is produced in the concept stage and is maintained throughout all the CADMID stages of the project’s life cycle. It  shows the full resources needed to meet the objectives of the project and is recognised by all stakeholders.

User Any individual who is affected by the output from, provides the input to, maintains, uses or manages  the use of a system.

NOTE 8 - A user is a stakeholder.

NOTE 9 - Since systems are hierarchical and this process model is intended to cover all types of system. From theatre response to system-of-systems across to squaddie putting on socks down to rating pressing  button there are user-related issues requiring HFI.

The relationship between stakeholders and users is shown in the  figure below, with examples of each included.

User Requirement An expression of a single and  unique user need.HFI understands that user requirements can be  decomposed from organisation to role to duty to task to activity, but that this is not a strict hierarchical decomposition and that the requirements differ in nature at each level (and that new requirements are introduced at each level). Furthermore, requirements are not seen as pre-existing and just needing to be  'captured', but are seen as needing to be constructed. System Engineering models vary considerably in their approach to user requirements. The degree of  difference with the HFI understanding poses an interface that needs to be  bridged. The inclusion of information on the context of use is seen as vital to  successful User Requirements; System Engineering approaches that make extensive use of scenarios to support requirements can go a long way to meeting this specific need.

User Requirements Document (URD) An all- embracing,  structural expression of the user needs for a bounded operational capability. It is generated from the single statement of need identified through the equipment  capbility strategy process. The URD is owned by the Capability Manager and  consists of a complete set of individual user requirements supported by other  documents.

Usability The extent to which a product can be used by  specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in specified context of use.

Worksystem The work system comprises a combination of  people and working equipment, acting together in the work process, to perform the work task, at the work space, in the work environment, under the conditions imposed by the work task. The work system is the complete package of operating  procedures, user training, documentation, hardware, software, support services  and the organisational and physical environment required to carry out an operational or business objective. It should be noted that Health and Safety at  Work Regulations require the employer (e.g. the Services) to provide safe work systems and also require suppliers to ensure that their systems provide safe work systems for those affected by the use of the system.

(associated) Work product A document, piece of  information, product or other item which acts as input to or output from a  process.

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