The Human-System model





Life cycle involvement

Integrate human factors

Human-centred design

Human resources

HS.1.1 Human-system issues in conception

HS.1.2 Human-system issues in development

HS.1.3 Human-system issues in production and utilization

HS.1.4 Human-system issues in utilization and support

HS.1.5 Human-system issues in retirement

HS.2.1 Human-system issues in business strategy

HS.2.2 Human-system issues in quality management

HS.2.3 Human-system issues in authorisation and control

HS.2.4 Management of human-system issues

HS.2.5 HF data in trade-off and risk mitigation

HS.2.6 User involvement

HS.2.7 Human system integration

HS.2.8 Develop and re-use HF data

HS.3.1 Context of use

HS.3.2 User requirements

HS.3.3 Produce design solutions

HS.3.4 Evaluation

HS.4.1 Human resources strategy

HS.4.2 Define standard competencies and identify gaps

HS.4.3 Design staffing solution and delivery plan

HS.4.4 Evaluate product system solutions and obtain feedback












Human-system issues in conception

Human-system issues in development

Human-system issues in production and utilization

Human-system issues in utilization and support

Human-system issues in retirement

HS.1.1.BP1 Identify expected context of use of systems

HS.1.1.BP2 Analyse the system concept

HS.1.1.BP3 Describe the objectives which the user or user organisation wants to achieve through use of the system

HS.1.1.BP4 Identify and analyse the roles of each group of stakeholders likely to be affected by a product system

HS.1.1.BP5 Perform research into required system usability

HS.1.1.BP6 Present context and human resources options and constraints to the project stakeholders

HS.1.1.BP8 Contribute to the business case for the system

HS.1.2.BP1 Generate design options for each aspect of the system related to its use and its effect on stakeholders

HS.1.2.BP2 Produce human centred solutions for each design option

HS.1.2.BP3 Design for customisation

HS.1.2.BP4 Develop simulation or trial implementation of key aspects of the system for the purposes of testing with users

HS.1.2.BP5 Collect user input on the usability of the developing system

HS.1.2.BP6 Assess the health and well-being risks to the users of the system

HS.1.2.BP7 Assess the risks to the community and environment arising from human error in the use of the system

HS.1.3.BP1 Evolve options and constraints into an implementation strategy covering technical, integration, and planning and manning issues

HS.1.3.BP2 Identify, specify and produce the infrastructure for the system

HS.1.3.BP3 Maintain contact with users and the client organisation throughout the definition, development and introduction of a system

HS.1.3.BP4 Build required competencies into training and awareness programmes

HS.1.3.BP5 Test that the system meets the requirements of the users, the tasks and the environment, as defined in its specification

HS.1.3.BP6 Analyse feedback on the system during delivery and inform the organisation of emerging issues

HS.1.4.BP1 Produce personnel strategy

HS.1.4.BP2 Review the system for adherence to applicable human science knowledge, style guides, standards, guidelines, regulations and legislation

HS.1.4.BP3 Deliver training and workshops to users and maintainers

HS.1.4.BP4 Assess the effect of change on the usability of the system

HS.1.4.BP5 Review the health and well-being risks to the users of the system

HS.1.4.BP6 Review the risks to the community and environment arising from human error in the use of the system

HS.1.4.BP7 Take action on issues arising from in service assessment

HS.1.4.BP8 Perform research to refine and consolidate operation and support strategy for the system

HS.1.4.BP8 Take action on issues arising from in service assessment

HS.1.5.BP1 Collect and analyse in-service reports to generate updates or lessons learnt for the next version of the system

HS.1.5.BP2 Identify risks and health and safety issues associated with removal from service and destruction of the system

HS.1.5.BP3 Define how users will be re-allocated, dismissed, transferred to other duties.

HS.1.5.BP4 Plan break-up of social structures

HS.1.5.BP5 Debriefing and retrospective analysis for replacement system












Human-system issues in business strategy

Human-system issues in quality management

Human-system issues in authorisation and control

Management of human-system issues

HF data in trade-off and risk mitigation

User involvement

Human system integration

Develop and re-use HF data

HS.2.1.BP1 Define usability as a competitive asset

HS.2.1.BP2 Set usability, health and safety objectives for systems

HS.2.1.BP3 Follow competitive situation in the market place

HS.2.1.BP4 Develop user-centred infrastructure

HS.2.1.BP5 Relate HS issues to business benefits

HS.2.2.BP1 Establish and communicate a policy for human-centredness

HS.2.2.BP2 Include HR and user centred elements in support and control procedures

HS.2.2.BP3 Define and maintain HCD and HR infrastructure and resources

HS.2.2.BP4 Increase and maintain awareness of usability

HS.2.2.BP5 Develop or provide staff with suitable HS skills

HS.2.3.BP1 Take account of stakeholder and user issues in acquisition activities

HS.2.3.BP2 Take account of HS issues in financial management

HS.2.3.BP3 Assess and improve HS capability in processes which affect usability, health and safety

HS.2.3.BP4 Include HS review and sign-off in all reviews and decisions

HS.2.4.BP1 Develop a plan to achieve and maintain usability throughout the life of the system

HS.2.4.BP2 Identify the specialist skills required and plan how to provide them

HS.2.4.BP3 Manage the life cycle plan to address HS issues

HS.2.5.BP1 Plan and manage use of HF data to mitigate risks related to HS issues

HS.2.5.BP2 Assess the extent to which usability criteria and other HS requirements are likely to be met by the proposed design

HS.2.5.BP3 Evaluate the current severity of emerging threats to system usability and other HS risks and the effectiveness of mitigation measures

HS.2.5.BP4 Take effective mitigation to address risks to product system usability

HS.2.6.BP1 eIdentify HS issues and aspects of the system that require user input

HS.2.6.BP3 Assess the risks of not involving end users in each evaluation

HS.2.6.BP4 Define a strategy and plan for user involvement

HS.2.6.BP5 Select and use the most effective method to elicit user input

HS.2.6.BP6 Take account of user input and inform users

HS.2.7.BP1 Develop a common terminology for HS issues with the organisation

HS.2.7.BP2 Facilitate personal and technical interactions related to HS issues

HS.2.7.BP3 Identify and use the most suitable data formats for exchanging HF data

HS.2.7.BP4 Customise tools and methods as necessary for particular projects/stages

HS.2.7.BP5 Identify emerging HS issues

HS2.8 BP1 Have a policy for HF data management

HS.2.8. BP2 Perform research to develop HF data as required

HS.2.8 BP3 Produce coherent data standards and formats

HS.2.8 BP4 Define rules for the management of data

HS.2.8 BP5 Develop and maintain adequate data search methods

HS.2.8.BP6 Seek and exploit expert guidance and advice on HS issues









Context of use

User requirements

Produce design solutions


HS.3.1.BP1 Define the scope of the context of use for the system

HS.3.1.BP2 Analyse the tasks and worksystem

HS.3.1.BP3 Describe the characteristics of the users

HS.3.1.BP4 Describe the cultural environment/organisational/management regime

HS.3.1.BP5 Describe the characteristics of any equipment external to the system and the working environment

HS.3.1.BP6 Describe the location, workplace equipment and ambient conditions

HS.3.1.BP7 Analyse the implications of the context of use

HS.3.1.BP8 Present these issues to project stakeholders for use in the development or operation of the system

HS.3.2.BP1 Set and agree the expected behaviour and performance of the system with respect to the user

HS.3.2.BP2 Develop an explicit statement of the user requirements for the system

HS.3.2.BP3 Analyse the user requirements

HS.3.2.BP4 Generate and agree on measurable criteria for the system in its intended context of use

HS.3.2.BP5 Present these requirements to project stakeholders for use in the development and operation of the system

HS.3.3.BP1 Distribute functions between the human, machine and organisational elements of the system best able to fulfil each function

HS.3.3.BP2 Develop a practical model of the userís work from the requirements, context of use, allocation of function and design constraints for the product system

HS.3.3.BP4 Produce designs for the user-related elements of the system that take account of the user requirements, context of use and HF data

HS.3.3.BP5 Produce a description of how the system will be used

HS.3.3.BP6 Revise design and safety features using feedback from evaluations

HS.3.4.BP1 Plan the evaluation

HS.3.4.BP2 Identify and analyse the conditions under which a system is to be tested or otherwise evaluated

HS.3.4.BP3 Check that the system is fit for evaluation

HS.3.4.BP4 Carry out and analyse the evaluation according to the evaluation plan

HS.3.4.BP5 Understand and act on the results of the evaluation








Human resources strategy

Define standard competencies and identify gaps

Design staffing solution and delivery plan

Evaluate system solutions and obtain feedback

HS.4.1.BP1 Decide the goals, behaviours and tasks of the organisation

HS.4.1.BP2 Define the global numbers, skills and supporting equipment needed to achieve those tasks

HS.4.1.BP3 Decide how many people are needed to fulfil the strategy and what ranges of competence they need

HS.4.1.BP4 Implement the HR strategy that gives the organisation a mechanism for implementing and recording lessons learnt

HS.4.1.BP5 Feedback into future HR procurement, training and delivery strategies

HS.4.1.BP6 Enable and encourage people and teams to work together to deliver the organisationís objectives

HS.4.2.BP1 Identify current tasking/duty

HS.4.2.BP2 Analyse gap between existing and future provision

HS.4.2.BP3 Identify skill requirements for each role

HS.4.2.BP4 Predict staff wastage between present and future

HS.4.2.BP5 Calculate the available staffing taking account of working hours, attainable effort and non-availability factor

HS.4.2.BP6 Compare to define gap and communicate requirement to design of staffing solutions

HS.4.2.BP7 Create capability to meet system requirements in the future (conduct succession planning)

HS.4.2.BP8 Produce and promulgate a validated statement of shortfall by number and range of competence

HS.4.3.BP1 Identify and allocate the functions to be performed

HS.4.3.BP2 Specify and produce job designs and competence/skills required to be delivered

HS.4.3.BP3 Calculate the required number of personnel (number required)

HS.4.3.BP4 Generate costed options for delivery of training and/or redeployment

HS.4.3.BP5 Evolve options and constraints into an optimal implementation plan

HS.4.3.BP6 Develop and trial training solution to representative users

HS.4.3.BP7 Deliver final training solutions to designated staff according to agreed timetable

HS.4.3.BP8 Identify any opportunities for redeployment

HS.4.5.BP1 Develop a strategy for data gathering

HS.4.5.BP2 Provide means for user feedback

HS.4.5.BP3 Conduct assessments of usability

HS.4.5.BP4 Interpret the findings

HS.4.5.BP5 Validate the data

HS.4.5.BP6 Check that the data are being used